Understanding Fundamentals In business and economics, fundamentals represent the primary characteristics and financial data necessary to determine the stability and health of an asset. This data can include macroeconomic, or large-scale factors, and microeconomic, or small-scale factors to set a value on securities or businesses.

Analysts and investors examine these fundamentals to develop an estimate as to whether the underlying asset is considered a worthwhile investment, and if there is fair valuation in the market. For businesses, information such as profitability, revenue, assets, liabilities, and growth potential are considered fundamentals. Through the use of fundamental analysis, you may calculate a company's financial ratios to determine the feasibility of the investment.

While fundamentals are most often considered factors that relate to particular businesses or securities, national economies, and their currencies also have a set of fundamentals that can be analyzed. For example, interest rates, gross domestic product (GDP) growth, trade balance surplus/deficits, and inflation levels are some factors that are considered to be fundamentals of a nation's value. forex trading signals free

Macroeconomic and Microeconomic Fundamentals Macroeconomic fundamentals are topics that affect an economy at-large, including statistics regarding unemployment, supply and demand, growth, and inflation, as well as considerations for monetary or fiscal policy and international trade. These categories can be applied to the analysis of a large-scale economy as a whole or can be related to individual business activity to make changes based on macroeconomic influences. Large scale, macroeconomic fundamentals are also part of the top-down analysis of individual companies.

Microeconomic fundamentals focus on the activities within smaller segments of the economy, such as a particular market or sector. This small-scale focus can include issues of supply and demand within the specified segment, labor, and both consumer and firm theories. Consumer theory investigates how people spend within their particular budget restraints. The theory of the firm states that a business exists and makes decisions to earn profits.

Fundamentals in Business By looking at the economics of a business, including the overall management and the financial statements, investors are looking at a company's fundamentals. Not only do these data points show the health of the business, but they also indicate the probability of further growth. A company with little debt and sufficient cash is considered to have strong fundamentals.

Strong fundamentals suggest that a business has a viable framework or financial structure. Conversely, those with weak fundamentals may have issues in the areas of debt obligation management, cost control, or overall organizational management. A business with strong fundamentals may be more likely to survive adverse events, like economic recessions or depressions, than one with weaker fundamentals. Also, strength may indicate less risk should an investor consider purchasing securities associated with the businesses mentioned. free forex signals Fundamental Analysis Investors and financial analysts are interested in evaluating the fundamentals of a company to compare its economic position relative to its industry peers, to the broader market, or to itself over time. Fundamental analysis involves digging deep into a company's financial statements to extract its profit and growth potential, relative riskiness, and to ultimately decide if its shares are over, under, or fairly valued in the market.

Often fundamental analysis involves computing and analyzing ratios to make apples-to-apples comparisons. Some common fundamental analysis ratios are listed below.

The debt-to-equity ratio (DE) measures how a company is financing its operations. The quick ratio measures the company’s ability to meet its short-term obligations. The degree of financial leverage (DFL) measures the stability or volatility of the earnings per share (EPS). The price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio compares investment to earnings dollars. The DuPont analysis looks at return on equity (ROE) by looking at asset use efficiency, operating efficiency, and financial leverage. Fundamental analysis should be carried out with a holistic approach, utilizing several ratios and including a bottom-up as well as a top-down analysis to come to specific conclusions and actions. forex trading signals

Real World Example In the fourth quarter of 2018, according to Market Watch, large-cap tech companies Microsoft and Apple had similar market caps for the first time since 2010. Although the two companies had similar market caps of about $850 billion, they had very different fundamentals. For example, Microsoft was trading at 45X earnings while Apple was trading at 15X earnings.1

What is the book value of the common share? Book value per common share (or simply book value per share - BVPS) is a method of calculating the book value per share of a company based on the equity of the common shareholders in the company. A company's book value is the difference between that company's total assets and total liabilities, not its market share price.

In the event of the dissolution of the company, the book value of each ordinary share indicates the remaining dollar value of the ordinary shareholders after all assets are liquidated and all debtors are paid.

free forex signals Understand the book value

The equation for the book value of a common share is: Book value per ordinary share (formula below) is an accounting measure based on historical transactions:

What does BVPS tell you? The book value of ordinary shares in the numerator reflects the original returns that the company receives from the issuance of ordinary shares, which are increased by profits or decreased due to losses, and decreased by dividends paid. Company share buybacks reduce the book value and the total number of common shares. Stock buybacks occur at current stock prices, which can lead to a significant reduction in the company's book value per common stock. The number of common shares used in the denominator is usually the average number of diluted ordinary shares of the past year, which takes into account any additional shares other than the number of underlying shares that could arise from stock options, guarantees, preferred shares, and other convertible instruments. forex trading signals free Example of BVPS As a hypothetical example, suppose XYZ Manufacturing's common stock balance is $ 10 million, and one million shares of common stock outstanding, which means that BVPS is ($ 10 million / 1 million shares), or $ 10 per share. If XYZ manages to generate higher profits and uses those profits to buy more assets or reduce liabilities, the company's common stock increases. For example, if a company makes a profit of $ 500,000 and uses $ 200,000 of the profits to purchase the assets, the common stock increases along with the BVPS. On the other hand, if XYZ uses $ 300,000 in dividends to reduce liabilities, the common stock also increases.

The difference between the market value of the share and the book value of the share The market value per share is the company's current share price, and it reflects the value that market participants are willing to pay for their regular share. Book value per share is calculated using historical costs, but market value per share is a forward-looking measure that takes into account the firm's future earnings strength. With increases in the company's estimated profitability, projected growth, and soundness of its business, the market value per share grows higher. Material differences arise between the book value per share and the market value per share due to the ways in which accounting principles classify certain transactions.

For example, consider a company's brand value, which was created through a series of marketing campaigns. US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) require marketing costs to be spent promptly, which reduces the book value per share.1 However, if the advertising efforts enhance the company's product image, the company can charge premium rates and create brand value. Market demand may lead to an increase in the share price, which creates a large discrepancy between the market and the book values per share. free forex signals The difference between book value of common stock and net asset value (NAV) Whereas, BVPS considers the residual equity per share of the company's shares, net asset value, or NAV, to be the value per share computed for a mutual fund, exchange-traded fund, or ETF. For any of these investments, the net asset value is calculated by dividing the total value of all fund securities by the total number of fund shares outstanding. NAV is created daily for mutual funds. A number of analysts consider total annual return to be a better and more accurate measure of mutual fund performance, but net asset value is still used as an easy-to-use interim valuation tool. free forex trading signals

BVPS limits Because the book value per share only takes into account book value, it fails to incorporate other intangible factors that may increase the market value of the company's shares, even upon liquidation. For example, high-tech banks or software companies often have very little tangible assets in relation to their intellectual property and human capital (workforce). These intangible assets will not always be taken into account in the book value calculation.

Margin trading Margin trading makes it easier for traders to enter into trading opportunities as you don't have to worry about spending a lot of cash to acquire an asset.

Margin is the interest owed on loans between you and your broker in relation to the assets of your portfolio. For example, if you short sell shares, you must first borrow it on margin and then sell it to the buyer. Or, if you buy on margin, you will be offered the ability to leverage your money to buy more shares than the cash you spend. forex trading signals

For example, with a margin of 10%, you can buy up to $ 1,000 worth of shares with only $ 100 subtracting. You are given an additional $ 900 in the form of a marginal loan, on which you will have to pay interest. If you have a margin account, it is important that you understand how this margin interest is calculated and be able to calculate it yourself manually when needed. It is just as important as the interest on your savings account.

Before making a calculation, you must first know the margin interest rate your broker charges for borrowing money. The mediator should be able to answer this question. Alternatively, the company's website may be a valuable source for this information, as well as account confirmation and / or monthly and quarterly account statements.

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Usually the broker will list their margin rates alongside other disclosures of fees and costs. Often times, the margin interest rate depends on the number of assets you have with your broker, the more money you have with them, the lower the margin interest you are responsible for paying.

Margin interest calculation Once you know the margin interest rate being charged, grab a pencil, piece of paper, and calculator and you'll be ready to find out the total cost of the margin interest payable. Here's a hypothetical example:

Let's say you want to borrow $ 30,000 to buy a stock that you intend to hold for 10 days where the interest margin is 6% per annum.

In order to calculate the cost of borrowing, first, take the amount of money borrowed and multiply it by the rate charged:

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$ 30,000 x .06 (6%) = $ 1,800 Then take the resulting number and divide it by the number of days of the year. Typically, the brokerage industry uses 360 days, not the anticipated 365 days.

$ 1,800 / $ 360 = 5 Next, multiply that number by the total number of days you've borrowed, or expect to borrow money on margin:

5 x 10 = $ 50 Using this example, it would cost you $ 50 in margin interest to borrow $ 30,000 for 10 days.

While margin can be used to amplify profits in the event that the stock rises and a leveraged purchase is made, losses can also be amplified if the price of your investment falls, resulting in a margin call, or the need to add more cash to your account to cover those paper losses.

free forex signals forex trading signals Remember that whether you win or lose on a trade, you still owe the same margin interest that was charged in the original transaction.

The bottom line Margin trading is a risky business, but it can be profitable if managed properly and, most importantly, if the trader does not get over himself. It also makes accessing specific asset values easier as the trader does not need to pay the total cost of the asset when he sees an interesting trading opportunity. When entering into a margin trade, it is important to calculate the cost of borrowing in order to determine the true cost of the deal, which will accurately indicate profit or loss.

What is constant proportion portfolio insurance (CPPI)?

Understanding Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) allows an investor to maintain exposure to the upside potential of a risky asset while offering a capital guarantee against downside risk. The result of the CPPI strategy is somewhat similar to buying a call option, but it does not use option contracts. Therefore, CPPI is sometimes referred to as a convex strategy, as opposed to a "concave strategy" as a constant mix. Financial institutions sell CPPI products on a variety of risk assets, including stocks and credit default swaps. Forex trading Signals

KEY TIPS CPPI is a strategy to combine the advantage of exposure to the equity market with investments in a conservative financial instrument. This is done by assigning a specifically calculated investment percentage to a risk account. A multiplier is used to determine the amount of risk an investor is willing to take. Investors can rebalance their positions on a monthly or quarterly basis. How Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) Works The investor will make an initial investment in the risk asset equal to the value of: (Multiplier) x (value of the cushion in dollars) and will invest the rest in the conservative asset. The value of the multiplier is based on the investor's risk profile and is obtained by first asking what the maximum loss in a day of the risk investment could be. The multiplier will be the inverse of that percentage. As the value of the portfolio changes over time, the investor will rebalance according to the same strategy. CPPI consists of two accounts: a risk account and a security account. As their names indicate, both accounts serve specific purposes in an individual's overall investment strategy. The risk account is leveraged with futures holdings to hedge against the downside of significant exposure to equities. The funds are dynamically transferred between the two accounts based on the economic environment.

The schedule for rebalancing is up to the investor, with monthly or quarterly examples being frequently cited. Typically, CPPI is implemented over five-year periods. Ideally, the value of the cushion will grow over time, allowing more money to flow into the risk asset. However, if the buffer falls, the investor may need to sell a portion of the risk asset to keep the asset allocation targets intact. Free Forex Signals One of the problems with implementing a CPPI strategy is that you do not immediately "de-risk" your holdings when markets move in the opposite direction. A hypothetical CPPI strategy on a five-year investment time horizon would have underperformed the S&P 500 for several years after the 2008 financial crisis. Forex trading Signals CPPI example Consider a hypothetical portfolio of $ 100,000, of which the investor decides that $ 90,000 is the absolute floor. If the portfolio falls to $ 90,000 in value, the investor would move all assets to cash to preserve capital. Free Forex Signals Forex Signals Forex trading Signals If one decides that 20 percent is the maximum chance of "falling", the value of the multiplier will be (1 / 0.20), or 5. Multiplier values between 3 and 6 are very common. Based on the information provided, the investor would allocate 5 x ($ 100,000 - $ 90,000) or $ 50,000 to the risk asset, with the remainder going to the cash or conservative asset.

The Fibonacci Sequence In Liber Abaci, a problem is posed that gives rise to the sequence of numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, and so on to infinity, known today as the Fibonacci sequence. The problem is this: free forex signals How many pairs of rabbits placed in an enclosed area can be produced in a single year from one pair of rabbits if each pair gives birth to a new pair each month starting with the second month? free forex signals In arriving at the solution, we find that each pair, including the first pair, needs a month’s time to mature, but once in production, begets a new pair each month. The number of pairs is the same at the beginning of each of the first two months, so the sequence is 1, 1. This first pair finally doubles its number during the second month, so that there are two pairs at the beginning of the third month. Of these, the older pair begets a third pair the following month so that at the beginning of the fourth month, the sequence expands 1, 1, 2, 3. Of these three, the two older pairs reproduce, but not the youngest pair, so the number of rabbit pairs expands to five. The next month, three pairs reproduce so the sequence expands to 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 and so forth. Figure 3-1 shows the Rabbit Family Tree with the family growing with exponential acceleration. Continue the sequence for a few years and the numbers become astronomical. In 100 months, for instance, we would have to contend with 354,224,848,179,261,915,075 pairs of rabbits. The Fibonacci sequence resulting from the rabbit problem has many interesting properties and reflects an almost constant relationship among its components.

Figure 3-1 The sum of any two adjacent numbers in the sequence forms the next higher number in the sequence, viz., 1 plus 1 equals 2, 1 plus 2 equals 3, 2 plus 3 equals 5, 3 plus 5 equals 8, and so on to infinity. free forex signals The Golden Ratio After the first several numbers in the sequence, the ratio of any number to the next higher is approximately .618 to 1 and to the next lower number approximately 1.618 to 1. The further along the sequence, the closer the ratio approaches phi (denoted ϕ) which is an irrational number, .618034.... Between alternate numbers in the sequence, the ratio is approximately .382, whose inverse is 2.618. Refer to Figure 3-2 for a ratio table interlocking all Fibonacci numbers from 1 to 144. forex trading signals Phi is the only number that when added to 1 yields its inverse: 1 + .618 = 1 ÷ .618. This alliance of the additive and the multiplicative produces the following sequence of equations: .6182 = 1 - .618, .6183 = .618 - .6182, .6184 = .6182 - .6183, .6185 = .6183 - .6184, etc. or alternatively, 1.6182 = 1 + 1.618, 1.6183 = 1.618 + 1.6182, 1.6184 = 1.6182 + 1.6183, 1.61855 = 1.6183 + 1.6184, etc. Some statements of the interrelated properties of these four main ratios can be listed as follows: 1.618 - .618 = 1, 1.618 x .618 = 1, 1 - .618 = .382, .618 x .618 = .382, 2.618 - 1.618 = 1, 2.618 x .382 = 1, 2.618 x .618 = 1.618, 1.618 x 1.618 = 2.618. forex signals Besides 1 and 2, any Fibonacci number multiplied by four, when added to a selected Fibonacci number, gives another Fibonacci number, so that:

Figure 3-2 3 x 4 = 12; + 1 = 13, 5 x 4 = 20; + 1 = 21, 8 x 4 = 32; + 2 = 34, 13 x 4 = 52; + 3 = 55, 21 x 4 = 84; + 5 = 89, and so on. As the new sequence progresses, a third sequence begins in those numbers that are added to the 4x multiple. This relationship is possible because the ratio between second alternate Fibonacci numbers is 4.236, where .236 is both its inverse and its difference from the number 4. Other multiples produce different sequences, all based on Fibonacci multiples. forex signals We offer a partial list of additional phenomena relating to the Fibonacci sequence as follows: 1) No two consecutive Fibonacci numbers have any common factors. 2) If the terms of the Fibonacci sequence are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc., we find that, except for the fourth Fibonacci number (3), each time a prime Fibonacci number (one divisible only by itself and 1) is reached, the sequence number is prime as well. Similarly, except for the fourth Fibonacci number (3), all composite sequence numbers (those divisible by at least two numbers besides themselves and 1) denote composite Fibonacci numbers, as in the table below. The converses of these phenomena are not always true. Fibonacci: Prime vs. Composite P P P X P P P P

1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 X C C C C C C C C 3) The sum of any ten numbers in the sequence is divisible by 11. 4) The sum of all Fibonacci numbers in the sequence up to any point, plus 1, equals the Fibonacci number two steps ahead of the last one added. 5) The sum of the squares of any consecutive sequence of Fibonacci numbers beginning at the first 1 will always equal the last number of the sequence chosen times the next higher number. forex signals

6) The square of a Fibonacci number minus the square of the second number below it in the sequence is always a Fibonacci number. 7) The square of any Fibonacci number is equal to the number before it in the sequence multiplied by the number after it in the sequence plus or minus 1. The plus 1 and minus 1 alternate along the sequence.

8) The square of one Fibonacci number Fn plus the square of the next Fibonacci number Fn+1 equals the Fibonacci number of F2n+1. The formula Fn2 + Fn+12 = F2n+1 is applicable to right-angle triangles, for which the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides equals the square of the longest side. At right is an example, using F5, F6 and F−−√F11. 9) One formula illustrating a relationship between the two most ubiquitous irrational numbers in mathematics, pi and phi, is as follows: Fn ≈ 100 x π2 x ϕ(15-n), where ϕ = .618..., n represents the numerical position of the term in the sequence and Fn represents the term itself. In this case, the number "1" is represented only once, so that F1 ≈ 1, F2 ≈ 2, F3 ≈ 3, F4 ≈ 5, etc. For example, let n = 7. Then, F7 ≈ 100 x 3.14162 x .6180339(15-7) ≈ 986.97 x .61803398 ≈ 986.97 x .02129 ≈ 21.01 ≈ 21 forex signals free 10) One mind stretching phenomenon, which to our knowledge has not previously been mentioned, is that the ratios between Fibonacci numbers yield numbers which very nearly are thousandths of other Fibonacci numbers, the difference being a thousandth of a third Fibonacci number, all in sequence (see ratio table, Figure 3-2). Thus, in ascending direction, identical Fibonacci numbers are related by 1.00, or .987 plus .013; adjacent Fibonacci numbers are related by 1.618, or 1.597 plus .021; alternate Fibonacci numbers are related by 2.618, or 2.584 plus .034; and so on. In the descending direction, adjacent Fibonacci numbers are related by .618, or .610 plus .008; alternate Fibonacci numbers are related by .382, or .377 plus .005; second alternates are related by .236, or .233 plus .003; third alternates are related by .146, or .144 plus .002; fourth alternates are related by .090, or .089 plus .001; fifth alternates are related by .056, or .055 plus .001; sixth through twelfth alternates are related by ratios which are themselves thousandths of Fibonacci numbers beginning with .034. It is interesting that by this analysis, the ratio then between thirteenth alternate Fibonacci numbers begins the series back at .001, one thousandth of where it began! On all counts, we truly have a creation of "like from like," of "reproduction in an endless series," revealing the properties of "the most binding of all mathematical relations," as its admirers have characterized it. Finally, we note that (5√5 + 1)/2 = 1.618 and (5√5 - 1)/2 = .618, where 5√5 = 2.236. 5 is the most important number in the Wave Principle, and its square root is a mathematical key to phi. forex signals free 1.618 (or .618) is known as the Golden Ratio or Golden Mean. Its proportions are pleasing to the eye and ear. It appears throughout biology, music, art and architecture. William Hoffer, writing for the December 1975 Smithsonian Magazine, said: ...the proportion of .618034 to 1 is the mathematical basis for the shape of playing cards and the Parthenon, sunflowers and snail shells, Greek vases and the spiral galaxies of outer space. The Greeks based much of their art and architecture upon this proportion. They called it "the golden mean." Fibonacci’s abracadabric rabbits pop up in the most unexpected places. The numbers are unquestionably part of a mystical natural harmony that feels good, looks good and even sounds good. Music, for example, is based on the 8-note octave. On the piano this is represented by 8 white keys, 5 black ones — 13 in all. It is no accident that the musical harmony that seems to give the ear its greatest satisfaction is the major sixth. The note E vibrates at a ratio of .62500 to the note C.* A mere .006966 away from the exact golden mean, the proportions of the major sixth set off good vibrations in the cochlea of the inner ear — an organ that just happens to be shaped in a logarithmic spiral. The continual occurrence of Fibonacci numbers and the golden spiral in nature explains precisely why the proportion of .618034 to 1 is so pleasing in art. Man can see the image of life in art that is based on the golden mean. forex signals free Nature uses the Golden Ratio in its most intimate building blocks and in its most advanced patterns, in forms as minuscule as microtubules in the brain and the DNA molecule (see Figure 3-9) to those as large as planetary distances and periods. It is involved in such diverse phenomena as quasi crystal arrangements, reflections of light beams on glass, the brain and nervous system, musical arrangement, and the structures of plants and animals. Science is rapidly demonstrating that there is indeed a basic proportional principle of nature. By the way, you are holding this book with two of your five appendages, which have three jointed parts, five digits at the end, and three jointed sections to each digit, a 5-3-5-3 progression that mightily suggests the Wave Principle.

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